The industrial desalination plant, or RO device, also known as reverse osmosis, is a water treatment method that is inspired by nature. In designing and manufacturing RO industrial desalination plant, the general law of tendency of fresh water to migrate to saline water is used. Due to the problem of water shortage in today’s life and the need to desalinate water in various industrial and domestic uses, the production of RO industrial desalination plant is of great importance. Haft Industrial Group is one of the leading manufacturers of RO desalination plant in Iran and will have a comprehensive look at the process of this industrial water purifier, equipment and standards used in its design.
History of Industrial Desalination (RO)
Osmotic desalination was first introduced in 1748 by Jean Antonie Nollet. Up to 200 years after its introduction, reverse osmosis desalination was performed only on a laboratory scale. In 1949, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) first used this method to desalinate seawater.
Researchers at that university and the University of Florida in the mid-1950s and 1960s were able to extract drinking water using this technology. But this was done at a very slow pace and was not cost-effective for mass production until researchers at UCLA University and the National Research Institute of Canada developed a commercial reverse osmosis device.
By the end of 2001, about 15,200 of these devices were in use worldwide. From this perspective, the freshwater extraction system using RO industrial desalination plant from seawater or wells is considered a new method that is produced and sold on a commercial scale in recent decades.
Reasons for using RO industrial desalination
One of the biggest constraints in the world is the shortage of fresh water, which has created many problems in industry and human daily life. These restrictions are not only evident in the supply of drinking water, but also in agriculture and the production of medicine, health materials and industry. In contrast, seawater is unusable due to its high volume of salts, which can be used in the natural cycle with seawater desalination. The use of RO desalination plant allows to remove 99.6% of solutes in the water and finally deliver fresh and pure water as output.
What is reverse osmosis or desalination?
Osmosis is a process in nature in which fresh water tends to migrate to high-salt salt water. This process occurs many times during the day in the human body and in the kidneys, which can also be seen in nature in the process of absorbing water from the ground by the roots of trees. Reverse osmosis works the exact opposite of this process, in which saline water migrates to fresh water by pressure and ions and salts in the water are removed by a semi-permeable membrane.
Reverse osmosis desalination plant is especially used when there is a need to reduce the amount of salt in the water. Reverse osmosis is a physical separation process in which the flow of raw water is divided into two streams of product water and a stream of condensed water. Concentrated flow is also called saline or waste water.
How industrial desalination plant works
In reverse osmosis desalination, the raw water (untreated) is pumped by pressure into a chamber containing a semi-permeable membrane, because almost only pure water can pass through the membrane, so that the water is almost Pure on one side of the membrane and condensed water of impurities, on the other side. This external pressure is greater than normal osmotic pressure, so smaller molecules pass through the pores of the membrane, while larger molecules are unable to pass through the membrane.
It should be noted that the pore diameter of a membrane is even smaller than the diameter of a virus or bacterium. Larger molecules pass through the membrane in a lateral stream and are excreted. In general, reverse osmosis works as follows:
· Saline water enters the device with a lot of salts
· A pressure pump is used to transfer salt water to fresh water
· In the path of salt water to fresh water, a semi-permeable membrane with very small pores will be placed and will prevent the passage of salts to the fresh water part
· After using the desalination machine several times, it is necessary to wash the filter and semi-permeable membrane with different methods such as backwash and chemicals.
It is very important to note that, depending on the type of water and the amount of solutes in it, pre-treatment may be required, for which various devices such as ultrafiltration, carbon filter and sand filter, etc. are used. By using this equipment, a large volume of water pollution is reduced, and as a result, the reverse osmosis membrane is not damaged and its lifespan is increased.
Desalination plant equipment
In order to implement the RO desalination process, equipment such as the following is required:
· Pre-treatment system includes sand filter, carbon filter and cartridge filter
· Semi-permeable membrane
· High Pressure Pump
· Anti-scaling injection package including injection pump and tank
· Caustic soda and acid injection package includes injection pump and tank
· Deployment chassis
· Power distribution board and circuit
· CIP system
Desalination system control equipment and tools
The process of transferring water through a semi-permeable membrane and removing ions, salts and contaminants requires pressure, which is the amount of pressure applied to the water according to the amount of contamination and other things. For this reason, control equipment is used in different parts of the device to finally achieve water output by removing more than 98% of salts and 100% of bacteria and viruses. The most important control equipments used in the industrial desalination machine produced in Haft Industrial Group are:
· Steel pipes and fittings or Super Pipe and V.C for two lines under pressure and low pressure
· Flow regulating valves, sampling valves and pressure relief valves
· Electroconductivity meter (conductivity meter)
· Pressure Gauge Manometer
· Low Pressure Switch & High Pressure Switch
Advantages of industrial water purifier
RO industrial water purifier is now widely used not only in industry but also in agriculture and household sectors. The reason for the high demand for reverse osmosis to desalinate water is the many advantages of this method of water treatment, the most important of which are the following:
· The system is more economical than other methods
· Less energy consumption compared to other water purification methods
· Ability to work continuously without the need for periodic stops
· Ease of working with the device and reducing maintenance costs
· Prevention of bacteria, viruses and febrile substances (PYROGENS) from passing through the membranes
· Possibility of returning concentrated water to the environment or reusing water in the device
Application of water desalination (reverse osmosis)
The use of seawater and groundwater with high solutes and salinity, as well as the recycling of wastewater in industrial sectors is one of the best solutions to deal with drought and water shortages. RO desalination plant largely solves these problems and is used in various industries due to the removal of ions, bacteria and viruses and salts smaller than 0.0001 microns. The most important uses of reverse osmosis are:
· Preparation and production of drinking water from salt water
· Preparation and production of water required for rapid growth of livestock and poultry
· Supply and production of suitable water for significant growth of plants and agricultural uses
· Supply and production of process water of pharmaceutical and cosmetic factories
· Production of water for steam power plants and combined cycle
· Water supply and production of boilers, refrigeration systems and heat exchangers
· Water supply and production of dialysis machines in hospitals
· Recycling of industrial effluents
Industrial water desalination price
The price of desalinators varies depending on the type of operation, size, capacity and environment used by each. So that home water desalination is cheaper than industrial type with large size and capacities. To inform and inquire about the price of the industrial desalination device, all you have to do is contact Haft Industrial Group through the communication channels mentioned at the bottom of the page.
Manufacture of RO industrial desalination plant
Production of reverse osmosis desalination machine in different capacities and with different applications such as industrial, domestic, marine, agricultural, etc. is one of the services of Haft Industrial Group. This company with more than 30 years of international and domestic experience in manufacturing water and wastewater treatment equipment is ready to provide services to domestic and foreign companies and customers. Experts of Haft Industrial Group are ready to provide the necessary advice before purchasing an industrial desalination plant “RO” and offer different options depending on the purpose of installing reverse osmosis in the desired environment.